Common Core 108
Airfield Familiarization Fundamentals
108.1 Define the term aircraft handling.
Aircraft handling is a general term that describes any movement of aircraft or associated equipment.
108.2 State the purpose of standard aircraft taxi signals.
Used by all branches of the Armed Forces so that there will be no misunderstanding when a taxi signalman of one service is signaling a pilot of another.
108.3 State the vehicle speed limits on the flight line and around the aircraft.
The speed limit within 50 feet of aircraft is 5 mph. Along runways, taxiways, parking ramps and work areas it is 10 mph.
108.4 State the maximum towing speed of an aircraft.
As fast as the slowest walker.
108.5 Name the 4 categories of tie down requirements.
4. Heavy weather
The navy uses the TD-1A tied down chain. It's working load is 10,000 lbs. It weighs 10.5 lbs. The length is 1'6" minimum to 9'10" maximum.
108.6 State the purpose of the emergency shore based recovery equipment.
In an emergency situation, such as a blown tire, an indication that the landing gear has not locked, the pilot is sick, or any one of the numerous emergencies that could arise-you must arrest the aircraft and stop it in the shortest distance possible. This is to minimize the chance of an accident that could cause injury to the pilot and crew or damage to the aircraft.
108.7 State the purpose of the MA-1A overrun barrier.
Designed to stop aircraft not equipped with tail hooks but the aircraft must have a nose wheel for the barrier to be effective. The MA-1A is always in a standby status, in case there is an aborted takeoff or an emergency overrun landing.
108.8 State the minimum personal protective equipment required on the flight line and ramp areas during the following operations:
1. Routine maintenance- The work area shall be assessed as to hazards, which may be present. Each worker shall be given and briefed on the use of the proper PPE for that area.
2. Flight operations- All personnel whose duties require them to work on the flight deck shall wear:
Jersey, with the appropriate color as noted by the position of the individual; i.e. Plane Captains wear brown jerseys
Flight deck shoes
108.9 Identify the safety hazard areas associated with the following:
1. Intakes- The air intake ducts of operating jet engines are an ever present hazard to personnel working near the ducts of the aircraft. They are also a hazard to the engine itself if the area around the front of the aircraft is not kept clear of debris. The air intake duct may develop enough suction to pull an individual or hats, glasses, etc., into the intake. The hazard is greatest during maximum power settings.
2. Exhaust (engine and APU)- Jet engine exhausts create many hazards to personnel. The 2 most serious hazards of jet engine exhaust are the high temperature and high velocity of the exhaust gases from the tailpipe. High temperatures can be found up to several hundred feet from the tailpipe. The closer you get to the aircraft, the higher the exhaust temperatures. When a jet engine is starting, sometimes excess fuel can accumulate in the tailpipe. When the fuel ignites, long flames shoot out of the tailpipe. Personnel should be clear of this danger area at all times.
3. Propellers- Personnel should NOT approach or depart an aircraft with the propellers turning. Personnel should walk well around the propeller area at all times.
4. Rotor blades- Personnel should NOT approach or depart a helicopter while the rotors are being engaged or disengaged.
5. Hot brakes- Never face the side of the wheel, as an explosion of the wheel will follow the line of the axle, which may be outboard depending on the landing gear configuration. Explosion of the brake assembly itself sends pieces forward and aft. When suspecting a hot brake, always approach the wheel from a 45 degree angle never from fore or aft, or from the side.
108.10 Explain the significance of:
1. Runway numbering system- Runways are normally numbered in relation to their magnetic heading rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees, i.e. Runway 01: A runway heading of 250 degree is runway 25. If there are 2 runways whose centerline is parallel, the runway will be identified as L (left) and R (right) or 36L or 36R, if there are 3 parallel runways, they are identified as L (left), R (right), or C (center).
2. Threshold markings- Runways 200 feet wide have 10 stripes marking the landing threshold, each 12 feet wide by 150 feet long. For runways that are less than 200 feet wide, the markings cover the width of the runway less 20 feet on both sides. These markings designate the landing area.
3. Airfield lighting system- Procedures for the operation of airport lighting are in FAA Handbook 7110.65. Operation of the airport lighting at controlled airports is normally the responsibility of the tower. When the airfield is closed, all associated lighting is shut down with the following exceptions: 1. Navigable airspace obstruction lights 2. Rotating beacons used as a visual orientation aid in a metropolitan area. Airport lighting systems are standardized by the Air Force, Navy, and FAA to present a uniform and unmistakable appearance. These standards specify the location, spacing, and color of lighting components in use.
4. Runway/Taxiway marking system- Runway lights are installed to provide visual guidance at night under low-visibility conditions during aircraft takeoff and landing operations. Taxiway lights are blue. Their spacing is variable. Two blue lights, called entrance-exit lights, are spaced 5 feet apart and are placed on each side of a taxiway entrance to or exit from a runway or parking area. The taxi lights are turned on as soon as the pilot of an aircraft is cleared to taxi out. They are turned off when the aircraft is on the runway or another taxiway. For inbound aircraft, they are turned on as the aircraft approaches the taxiway and turned off when the aircraft is parked.
5. Arm/dearm areas- An area where ordnance is changed from a state of a safe condition to a state of readiness and vice versa. All evolutions are conducted using the individual stores loading manual/checklist. The area ahead of or behind and/or surrounding the aircraft shall be kept clear until all weapons/ordnance are completely safe. When aircraft are being taxied from the landing area to the dearm area, care must be taken to minimize exposure of the armed ordnance to personnel and equipment.
6. Overrun area- Provides a reasonably effective deceleration area for aborting or overshooting aircraft. The area may also serve as an emergency all-weather access for fire-fighting, crash, and rescue equipment. Some are paved and some have yellow chevrons across them. An area with this type marking is a nontouchdown area for aircraft.
7. Parking apron- Required for parking, servicing, and loading aircraft. They are connected to the runways by taxiways or tow ways. Parking sizes are based on the type and number of aircraft to be parked and requirement for squadron integrity.
108.11 Explain the purpose of the following:
1. Wind indicator- Provides a method for prompt issuance of wind directions and velocities to pilots.
2. Airfield rotating beacon- When the airport is below VFR weather conditions, the airport rotating beacon is used to identify the airport's location during darkness and daylight hours. Rotation is in a clockwise direction when viewed from above. The beacon is always rotated at a constant speed, which produces the visual effect of flashes at regular intervals. The flashing rate is 12 to 15 flashes per minute.
3. Tower visual communications- A coordination device between the radar controller and the control tower. Visual communication provides a sequence of lights and switches that supplement other circuits on the interphone system and serve to reduce the number of voice contacts between the tower and radar controller.
4. Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) system- TACAN uses a bearing determining system to determine aircraft position and distance from a TACAN station. The primary navigation aid used by carrier based aircraft.
5. Crash/rescue- Within the ship damage control organization is the Crash, Salvage, and Rescue Team. This team is the flight deck repair team. From its station in the island structure it serves to effect rescue of personnel from damaged aircraft on the flight deck, clear away wreckage, fight fires on and make minor emergency repairs to the flight deck and associated equipment.
6. Compass calibration pad- A paved area in a magnetically quiet area where the aircraft compass is calibrated. A minimum of one area is provided at each airport.
7. Liquid Oxygen (LOX) exchange area- A designated area which is used for the servicing of aircraft which require Liquid Oxygen (LOX). Liquid Oxygen is a light blue liquid that flows like water and is extremely cold (-297 degrees F). It has an expansion rate of 862 to 1. It is a strong oxidizer and vigorously supports combustion. The area must be kept free of flammable or combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, oil, or kerosene.
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