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Common Core 105


Naval Aviation Heritage and Doctrine


105.1 State the six areas of naval doctrine.

1.      Naval Warfare- describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of naval forces.

2.      Naval Intelligence- points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.

3.      Naval Operations- develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.

4.      Naval Logistics- addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are essential in the support of naval forces.

5.      Naval Planning- examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.

6.      Naval Command and Control- provides the basic concepts to fulfill the informational needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems.

105.2 Discuss how naval aviation supports the following warfare areas:

1.        Reconnaissance/surveillance- Reconnaissance and surveillance includes visual, radar, optical, and electronic search for and interception, recording, and analysis of data, used in support of military operations and tasks.  Naval Aviation assets support this area by increasing the area surveyed.  Ships can only see to the horizon, while aircraft can cover areas hundreds or thousands of miles away from the battle group.  The squadron types that perform these missions primarily are VF (photo reccon), VS, VP, VQ, VAQ.

2.        Antisubmarine- Used to locate and destroy submarines.  By utilizing aircraft, the fleet can create a larger buffer zone around the battle group.  Shore based ASW aircraft can sanitize an area in front of, beside or no where near the battle group.  The inherent speed of the aircraft creates greater flexibility in prosecution of submarine contacts.  This warfare area is primarily conducted by HSL, HS, VS, and VP.

3.        Amphibious Assault- An amphibious assault involves the taking of an area of land where the land and sea meet. This may include the landing of troops and equipment. Aircraft provide close air support by guns, missiles, bombs, and other ordnance. Helicopters may be employed to transport troops and their equipment to be moved from the ship to the shore, or provide close air support.  Helicopters increase the flexibility of amphibious assaults since helicopter assault increases the possible landing sites for assaulting forces.  This warfare area is supported by VF, VFA, VMFA, VMA, and HMA, while the actual assault is supported by HC, HMC, and HCS squadrons.

4.        Logistics Support- Involves the transport of troops, personnel, and cargo or equipment where needed by the military.  This is the primary mission of VR, VRC, VMRG, HC, and HMC squadrons.

5.        Search and Rescue- Naval aircraft greatly extend the range of search and greatly decrease the time needed to cover an area of search. Helicopters or VTOL aircraft can provide the actual rescue actions required more quickly once the member in need is identified. These may include rescue by a rescue swimmer, litter rescue, helicopter hoist, etc.  HC and HCS squadrons perform the SAR mission with support from all types of Naval aircraft.

6.        Mine warfare- Naval aircraft can perform Mine Interdiction warfare by laying mines.  Specialized mine hunting helicopters support the fleet by clearing mined areas.  Mine Interdiction Warfare is conducted by VA, VFA, and VP squadrons.  Mine clearing is the specialty of HM squadrons.

105.3 Discuss the conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy.

The areas of our country that became the 13 original states were colonies of England in the mid-1700's. The king of England allowed the colonies to trade only with England. Problems arose between the colonists and England as the years passed. English Parliament passed several tax laws that affected the colonists in a problem known as "taxation without representation". The colonists formed Committees of Correspondence to communicate the problems to England. They convened a Continental Congress to discuss these problems. This first congress met in 5 September 1774.


Since the colonies of England that became our nation were separated from England by the Atlantic Ocean, and England was the naval superpower of that day, naval forces were needed to further the cause of our fledgling nation. Friday, 13 October 1775, meeting in Philadelphia, the Continental Congress adopted the original legislation out of which the Continental Navy grew: "Resolved, That a swift sailing vessel, to carry ten carriage guns, and a proportional number of swivels, with eighty men, be fitted, with all possible dispatch for a cruise of three months, and that the commander be instructed to cruize eastward, for intercepting such transports as may be laden with warlike stores and other supplies for our enemies, and for such other purposes as the Congress shall direct.... Resolved, that another vessel be fitted out for the same purposes...." This prosaic language constitutes the Navy's birth certificate.

The first Commander in Chief was Esek Hopkins, who put the first squadron of the Continental Navy to sea in February 1776.

105.4 State the qualities that characterize the Navy/Marine Corps team as instruments to support national policies.

We are here the Army and the Air Force are at home.   The readiness, flexibility, self-sustainability, and mobility of  Naval forces (including the Marines) allow quick response and long durability.  The planned rotation of deployed forces allows much more flexibility that the other branches have.

Naval forces have been organized for fighting at sea - or from the sea - for more than two thousand years. The qualities that characterize most modern naval forces as political instruments in support of national policies are the same as those that define the essence of our naval Services today.  They permit naval forces to be expeditionary - that is, being able to establish and maintain a forward-based, stabilizing presence around the world. Naval expeditionary operations are offensive in nature, mounted by highly trained and well-equipped integrated task forces of the Navy and Marine Corps, organized to accomplish specific objectives. Naval expeditionary forces draw upon their readiness, flexibility, self-sustainability, and mobility to provide the National Command Authorities the tools they need to safeguard such vital national interests as the continued availability of oil from world producers and maintenance of political and economic stability around the globe. Through these qualities, naval forces reassure allies and friends, deter aggressors, and influence uncommitted and unstable regimes.

105.5 State the three levels of war.

The concept of "levels of war" can help us visualize the relative contribution of military objectives toward achieving overall national goals and offer us a way to place in perspective the causes and effects of our specific objectives, planning, and actions. There are three levels: tactical, operational, and strategic - each increasingly broader in scope. Although the levels do not have precise boundaries, in general we can say that the tactical level involves the details of individual engagements; the operational level concerns forces collectively in a theater; and the strategic level focuses on supporting national goals.  World War II, for example, a strategic-level and global war, included operational-level combat in the Pacific theater consisting primarily of U.S. led maritime, air, and supporting allied land campaigns. Within each specific campaign were a series of important and often decisive battles. At the tactical level, each contributed to the achievement of that campaign's objectives. The culmination of these campaign objectives resulted in overall victory in the Pacific theater.

105.6 Explain how Naval Intelligence, more than any other service, support peace time operational decision making.

Intelligence is central to the decision making process. Naval forces, being forward deployed require different intelligence information than normally provided by the centralized state-side based intelligence agencies.  Naval Intelligence focuses its efforts on gathering information necessary to deploy our smaller forces to the right areas and to prepare the commanders for the possible threats of those areas.

105.7 State the mission of Naval Logistics.

Sustained naval and joint operations are made possible by a logistic support system that has two major components: fleet-based sustainment assets and strategic sustainment assets. Fleet-based sustainment assets include replenishment ships of the combat logistics force providing direct fleet support, combat service support units, mobile repair facilities, and advanced logistic support hubs. Strategic sustainment is provided by air and sea assets that are shared by all Services. Successful global response to contingencies depends upon our ability to project and sustain U.S. forces in all theaters of operations. Integrated support resources in the form of fleet-based sustainment assets and strategic assets provide naval expeditionary forces and joint and multinational forces the ability to operate in peacetime and in war wherever and whenever our national interests demand. Our ability to move and sustain forces at great distances from our shores is critical to the forward presence component of our military strategy.

105.8 State the importance of planning to Naval Operations.

The importance of planning to Naval Operations can be summed up with the phrase “Proper Prior Planning Prevents Piss Poor Performance.”  Plans for situations threatening the United States are formulated in advance when ever possible.  By planning for the different possibilities, the operational commander is presented with options already thought out, allowing him flexibility and costing less time.  While all situations may not be planned for, by planning for as many as possible, those that must be reacted to still are easier since proper planning also allows leeway for such circumstances.

It is based on the commander's preparation of the battlespace, a formal evaluation, supported by intelligence, that integrates enemy doctrine with such factors as physical and environmental conditions. From this evaluation, the commander identifies the forces and support needed to execute the plan within a theater of operations. Naval forces operation plans are integrated into the complete inventory available to the Joint Force Commander. For execution, plans become operation orders. Operation plans include: the theater strategy or general concept and the organizational relationships; the logistics plan shows ways the force will be supported; and the deployment plan sequences the movement of the force and its logistical support into the theater. Elements of planning that produce a concept of operations include the commander's estimate, deciding possible courses of action, preparation of the mission statement and its execution strategy, situation analysis, and formulation of the commander's intent. These elements are applicable up, down, and across chains of command.

105.9 Discuss the importance of the following conflicts as they relate to naval aviation:

1.        Coral Sea- 4-8 May, 1942--In the first naval engagement of history fought without opposing ships making contact, United States carrier forces stopped a Japanese attempt to land at Port Moresby by turning back the covering carrier force. Task Force 17 (Rear Admiral F. J. Fletcher) with the carrier Yorktown, bombed Japanese transports engaged in landing troops in Tulagi Harbor, damaging several and sinking one destroyer (4 May); joined other Allied naval units including Task Force 11 (Rear Admiral A. W. Fitch) with the carrier Lexington south of the Louisiades (5 May); and after stationing an attack group in the probable track of the enemy transports, moved northward in search of the enemy covering force. Carrier aircraft located and sank the light carrier Shoho covering a convoy (7 May), while Japanese aircraft hit the separately operating attack group and sank one destroyer and one fleet tanker. The next day the Japanese covering force was located and taken under air attack, which damaged the carrier Shokaku. Almost simultaneously enemy carrier aircraft attacked Task Force 17, scoring hits which damaged Yorktown and set off uncontrollable fires on Lexington, as a result of which she was abandoned and was sunk (8 May). Although the score favored the Japanese, they retired from action and their occupation of Port Moresby by sea was deferred and finally abandoned.


2.        Midway- 3-6--The Battle of Midway--A strong Japanese thrust in the Central Pacific to occupy Midway Island, was led by a four- carrier Mobile Force, supported by heavy units of the Main Body (First Fleet) and covered by a diversionary carrier raid on Dutch Harbor in the Aleutians. This attack was met by a greatly outnumbered United States carrier force composed of Task Force 17 (Rear Admiral F. J. Fletcher) with Yorktown, and Task Force 16 (Rear Admiral R. A. Spruance) with Hornet and Enterprise, and by Navy, Marine Corps, and Army air units based on Midway. Patrol planes from Midway located and attacked ships of the Japanese Occupation Force 600 miles to the west (3 June), and of the Mobile Force (4 June) as it sent its aircraft against defensive installations on Midway.   The Japanese first concentrated their efforts on destruction of forces on the island of Midway.  Land based aircraft of the Army, Navy and Marines joined together to strike first at the Japanese carriers.  B-17s attacked from high altitude, escaping without loss, but obtaining no hits.  Sixteen out of 25 escorting F-2B and F-4F fighters were shot down by the superior Zeros, along with a majority of the Marine dive bombers.  Four Army B-26 Marauders, modified as torpedo bombers, and six TBF Avengers waiting to join VT-8 joined together for a land based torpedo attack.  Two Marauders returned.  At 0930, the carrier based torpedo planes attacked.  Separated from the other squadrons by poor visibility and miss-coordination, they each attacked alone.  VT-3, VT-6 and VT-8 each went in in spite of intense antiaircraft fire and concentrated attacks by Zeros.  No hits were obtained and the cost was very high.  Of 45 aircraft that went in, 2 from VT-3 returned and 3 from VT-6 returned.  Of all the aircrew of VT-8, only 1 pilot remained, floating in the water in the midst of the battle.  The Japanese carriers remained unscathed.  Their decks were full of aircraft refueling after the first strike on Midway, their hangars were full of aircraft loaded with bombs for the second wave, their fighter cover was now all at low altitude and they were still the strongest naval force in the world.  At 1030, that ended.  The dive bombers of VB-3, and VB-6, along with VS-3, and VS-6 arrived and hit full force and  sank the carriers Akagi, Kaga, and Soryu. A Japanese counter attack at noon and another 2 hours later, damaged Yorktown with bombs and torpedoes so severely that she was abandoned. In the late afternoon, U.S. carrier air hit the Mobile Force again, sinking Hiryu, the fourth and last of the Japanese carriers in action. With control of the air irretrievably lost, the Japanese retired under the attack of Midway-based aircraft (5 June) and of carrier air (6 June) in which the heavy cruiser Mikuma was sunk and Mogami severely damaged. Japanese losses totaled two heavy and two light carriers, one heavy cruiser, 258 aircraft, and a large percentage of their experienced carrier pilots. United States losses were 40 shore-based and 92 carrier aircraft, the destroyer Hammann and the carrier Yorktown, which sank 6 and 7 June respectively, the result of a single submarine attack. The decisive defeat administered to the Japanese put an end to their successful offensive and effectively turned the tide of the Pacific War.  In one day Japan lost its bid for control of the Pacific.


3.        Guadalcanal- 7 August 1942 through 9 February 1943--Air support for the U.S Marines' first amphibious landing of World War II was provided by three carriers of Air Support Force (Rear Admiral L. Noyes), and by Navy, Marine, and Army units of Aircraft, South Pacific (Rear Admiral J. S. McCain) operating from bases on New Caledonia and in the New Hebrides. Carrier forces withdrew from direct support (9 Aug) but remained in the area to give overall support to the campaign during which they participated in several of the naval engagements fought over the island. Saratoga sank the Japanese light carrier Ryujo in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons (23-25 Aug); Enterprise was hit by carrier-based bombers (24 Aug) and forced to retire; Saratoga was damaged by a submarine torpedo (31 Aug) and forced to retire; and Wasp was sunk by a submarine (15 Sep) while escorting a troop convoy to Guadalcanal. Hornet, in Task Group 17 (Rear Admiral G. D. Murray), hit targets in the Buin-Tonolei-Faisi area (5 Oct); attacked beached Japanese transports and supply dumps on Guadalcanal; destroyed a concentration of seaplanes at Rekata Bay (16 Oct); and, with Enterprise, fought in the Battle of Santa Cruz (26-27 Oct) in which Hornet was sunk by air attack. On the morning of 26 October, with Hornet burning on the horizon, Enterprise became the last operational US carrier in the Pacific.  A sign on the hangar deck said it all --”Enterprise vs. the Japanese”—reflecting the desperate situation and the resolve of her crew.  In final carrier actions of the campaign, Enterprise took part in the last stages of the Naval Battle for Guadalcanal (12-15 Nov), assisting in sinking 89,000 tons of war and cargo ships, and in the Battle of Rennel Island (29-30 Jan) in which two escort carriers also participated. Ashore, air forces in great variety provided direct support. Navy patrol squadrons flew search, rescue, and offensive missions from sheltered coves and harbors. Marine Fighter Squadron 223 and Scout Bombing Squadron 232, delivered by the escort carrier Long Island, initiated operations from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal (20 Aug) and were joined within a week by AAF fighter elements and dive bombers from Enterprise, and by other elements as the campaign progressed. Until the island was secure (9 Feb), these forces flew interceptor patrols, offensive missions against shipping, and close air support for the Marines and for Army troops relieving them (13 Oct).  Marine air units carrying the major air support burden accounted for 427 enemy aircraft during the campaign.


105.10 Discuss the significance of 8 May 1911, as it applies to naval aviation.

Captain W. I. Chambers prepared requisitions for two Glenn Curtis biplanes.  One, the Triad, was to be equipped for arising from or alighting on land or water; with a metal tipped propeller designed for a speed of at least 45 miles per hour; with provisions for carrying a passenger alongside the pilot; and with controls that could be operated by either the pilot or the passenger.  The machine thus described, later became the Navy's first airplane, the A-1.  Although these requisitions lacked the signature of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, necessary to direct the General Storekeeper to enter into a contract with the Curtiss Company, they did indicate Captain Chambers' decision as to which airplanes the Navy should purchase.  The planes were purchased for $5,500 each.  From this, May 8 has come to be considered the date upon which the Navy ordered its first airplane and has been officially proclaimed to be the birthday of naval aviation.


105.11 State the name of the first aircraft carrier.

20 March 1922: USS Langley
The USS Jupiter, a former coal-carrier, was recommissioned after conversion to the Navy's first carrier, the USS Langley (CV-1).

27 February, 1942--The seaplane tender Langley, formerly first carrier of the U.S. Navy, was sunk by enemy air attack 74 miles from her destination while ferrying 32 AAF P-40's to Tjilatjap, Java.  The first of 5 carriers of ours sunk that year.


105.12 What was the first jet powered naval aircraft?

10 March 1948, FJ-1 Fury.
The Navy jet made it's first carrier landing on USS Boxer (CV 21).


105.13 Who was the first naval aviator in space?

5 May 1961: Commander Alan B. Shepard became the first American to go into space as he completed a flight reaching 116 miles high and 302 miles down range from Cape Canaveral. His space capsule, Freedom 7, was launched by a Redstone rocket and recovered at sea by an HUS-1 helicopter of Marine Corps Squadron HMR(L)-262 which transported it and Commander Shepard to Lake Champlain.



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