103.1 Define the purpose of the Naval Aviation Safety Program
The primary objective is to preserve human and material resources. The program enhances operational readiness by preserving the resources used in accomplishing the naval aviation mission. The human resources include professional pride, high morale, physical well being, and life itself, all of which are susceptible to damage and destruction caused by mishaps. Material resources include property which may be damaged by an aircraft mishap including naval aircraft, ships, facilities, and weapons.
103.2 Explain the safety responsibilities of the following personnel:
1. Commanding Officer- The CO will require that persons are instructed and drilled in all safety precautions and procedures, that they are complied with, and that applicable safety precautions are posted. In instances where safety precautions have not been issued, the CO will issue or augment such safety precautions as deemed necessary. Ultimately responsible.
2. Aviation Safety Officer- The Aviation Safety Officer is the principle advisor to the CO on all aviation safety matters. He/she will advise and assist the CO in the establishment and management of a Command Aviation Safety Program, maintain appropriate aviation safety records and mishap statistics. He/she will coordinate safety matters among the organization staff.
3. Ground Safety Officer- The Ground Safety Officer is the principle advisor to the CO on all ground safety matters. He/she will advise and assist the CO in the establishment and management of a Command Ground Safety Program, maintain appropriate ground safety records and mishap statistics. Additionally, he/she will coordinate safety matters among the organization staff.
4. Department Head- The Department Head coordinates the department's safety program with the unit's Safety Officer and supervises the Department's Division Safety Officer. They ensure that all safety precautions are strictly observed by all persons within the department and all others concerned. He/she will ensure that safety precautions are kept posted and personnel are frequently and thoroughly instructed and drilled.
5. Division Officer- The Division Officer will ensure that personnel comply with all safety instructions. He/she will prepare and submit for publication additional safety instructions deemed necessary for Command safety.
6. Safety Petty Officer- The Safety PO will ensure that personnel are instructed in all safety matters and are familiar in safety instructions. He/she will be a central point for all safety related matters or concerns within a work center.
7. All hands- All personnel will familiarize themselves with safety regulations and instructions applicable to themselves and their assigned duties. They will comply with established safety standards, and report hazards and mishaps in accordance with their Command Safety Program and OPNAVINST 3750.6.
103.3 Explain the functions of the Safety Council/Enlisted Safety Committee.
A Safety Council is formed to set goals, manage assets, and review safety related recommendations. These Councils are formed in activities that are large in number such as an aircraft squadron or air station or larger. A record of meetings is kept. The council will review command plans, policies, procedures, conditions, and instructions for accuracy, content, currency, and responsiveness to corrective recommendations.
The ground, aviation, and aeromedical (flight surgeon) safety officers must be standing members of the council. The Enlisted Safety Committee is formed of representatives from each work center and other activities, such as AIMD, Medical, etc. They will meet once a month and discuss safety issues and provide recommendations for improved safety procedures.
103.4 Discuss how the following contribute to aviation mishaps:
1. Human error- Human error causes an alarmingly high number of mishaps. Human error is part of nearly every mishap. It includes those personnel who may have maintained or repaired equipment or even the worker at the factory where a part was manufactured. Human error involves both physical and mental factors including ergonomics (design of the workplace), physical strength of the individual, physical stress, and mental factors including the person's attitude, behavioral factors, etc.
2. Maintenance and support factors- Maintenance and support factors include improper maintenance, improper priority assignments on work requests, or lack of proper quality assurance. Mishaps may occur from the way the manufacturer made, assembled, or installed the equipment. Material damage and personnel injury mishaps can result from improperly maintained equipment.
3. Administrative and supervisory factors- Reviewing whether regulations and their enforcement by all levels in the chain of command could have contributed to the mishap is essential during a mishap investigation. Mishaps can result from an improper level of supervision or a failure to require personnel to meet personnel qualification standards. They can result from a lack of formal and informal training.
4. Material failures or malfunctions- Consider all material failures and malfunctions thoroughly, whether the failures or malfunctions occurred because of faulty design, defective manufacture, or repair. Most mishaps blamed on material failure may really involve maintenance factors or human error.
5. Environmental factors- Very few mishaps are caused by "acts of God." The cause of a mishap may be excessive speed for existing sea conditions or failure to secure for sea. Being struck by lightening may be an act of God, but being outside during a thunderstorm was a contributing cause, therefore, the mishap was probably preventable. Environmental factors include extreme exposure to heat, cold, vibration, noise, illumination, radiation, or atmospheric contaminants.
103.5 Define the following mishap classes:
1. Class A- The resulting total cost of reportable material property damage is $1,000,000 or more; or an injury or occupational illness results in a fatality or permanent total disability.
2. Class B- The resulting total cost of reportable material or property damage is $200,000 or more, but less than $1,000,000; or an injury or occupational illness results in permanent partial disability; or three or more personnel are inpatient hospitalized.
3. Class C- The resulting total cost of reportable material or property damage is $10,000 or more, but less than $200,000; a non-fatal injury that causes any loss of time beyond the day or shift on which it occurred; or a non-fatal illness or disease that causes loss of time from work or disability at any time (lost time case). For reporting purposes, reportable lost workday Class C mishaps are those which result in 5 or more lost workdays beyond the date of injury or onset of illness (exceptions apply).
4. Class D- The resulting total cost of reportable material or property damage is less than $10,000 or a non-fatal injury no lost time or first aid case) that does not meet the criteria of a Class C mishap.
103.6 State the objective of the Aviation Gas-Free Engineering Program.
The objective of the AVGFE Program is to ensure a safe environment is maintained when working on aeronautical equipment fuel systems.
103.7 Explain the hazards associated with Radio Frequency (RF) energy.
Radio frequency energy can generate electrical currents and/or voltage large enough to cause life-threatening electric shock, burns, biological changes, and cataracts. Premature or unwanted activation of electro-explosive devices (EED) in ordnance, can cause sparks and arcs which may ignite flammable materials.
103.8 State the purpose of the Laser Safety Hazard Control Program.
The program is to design a series of safety factors established when using lasers. These include appointing a Laser System Safety Officer, establishing safety regulations and standard operating procedures, eyewear, posting warning signs, training, safety surveys, medical surveillance, etc.
103.9 State the purpose of a safety stand down.
Safety stand downs are used to devote time to safety training, awareness, and enhancement of the commands safety climate.
103.10 Discuss the concept of Operational Risk Management (ORM)
Operational Risk Management is a systematic, decision making process used to identify and manage hazards that endanger naval resources. ORM is a tool used to make informed decisions by providing the best baseline of knowledge and experience available. Its purpose is to increase operational readiness by anticipating hazards and reducing the potential for success to gain the competitive advantage in combat. ORM is not just related to naval aviation; it applies across the war fighting spectrum.
103.11 Explain the following terms as they apply to ORM:
1. Identify hazards- Begin with an outline or chart of the major steps in the operation or operational analysis. Next, conduct a preliminary hazard analysis by listing all of the hazards associated with each step in the operational analysis along with possible causes for those hazards.
2. Assess hazards- For each hazard identified, determine the associated degree of risk in terms of probability and severity. Although not required, the use of a matrix may be helpful in assessing hazards.
3. Make risk decisions- Develop risk control options. Start with the most serious risk first and select controls that will reduce the risk to a minimum consistent with mission accomplishment. With selected controls in place, decide if the benefit of the operation outweighs the risk. If risk outweighs benefit or if assistance is required to implement controls, communicate with higher authority in the chain of command.
4. Implement controls- The following measures can be used to eliminate hazards or reduce the degree of risk. These include: Engineering controls, administrative controls, and personnel protective equipment.
5. Supervise- Conduct follow-up evaluations of the controls to ensure they remain in place and have the desired effect. Monitor for changes which may require further ORM. Take corrective action when necessary.
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